Sandra Winters

Department of Anthropology New York University


B.S. 2004, University of Maryland, College Park M.S. 2011, Central Washington University M.A. 2015, New York University





Peer reviewed journal articles



Winters S, Kamilar JM, Webster TH, Bradley BJ, Higham JP. Primate camouflage in the eyes of felids, raptors, and conspecifics. In review.


Rigaill LR, MacIntosh AJJ, Higham JP, Winters S, Shimizu K, Mouri K, Suzumura T, Furuichi T, Garcia C. No evidence for face color variation as an indocator of female characteristics in Japanese macaques. In revision.



Dubuc C, Allen WL, Casscio J, Lee S, Maestripieri D, Petersdorf M, Winters S, Higham JP. Who cares? Experimental attention biases provide new insights into a mammalian sexual signal. Behavioral Ecology 27:68-74. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arv117


Rigaill LR, MacIntosh AJJ, Higham JP, Winters S, Shimizu K, Mouri K, Furuichi T, Garcia C. Multimodal advertisement of pregnancy in free-ranging female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). PLoS One 10:e0135127. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135127


Winters S, Dubuc C, Higham JP. Perspectives: the looking time experimental paradigm in studies of animal visual perception and cognition. Ethology 121:1-16. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12378



Dubuc C, Winters S, Allen WL, Brent LJN, Cascio J, Maestripieri D, Ruiz-Lambides AV, Widdig A, Higham JP. Sexually selected skin colour is heritable and related to fecundity in a non-human primate. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281:20141602. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1602


Book chapters


Winters S, Petersdorf M, Higham JP. Charles Darwin and sexual selection in relation to sex in monkeys. In: Evolutionary Studies: Darwin’s Roadmap to the Curriculum, Wilson DS, Geher G, Head H, Sokol-Chang R (eds). Oxford University Press. In prep.


Higham JP & Winters S. Color and mate choice in non-human animals. In: Handbook of Color Psychology, Elliott AJ & Fairchild MD (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. pp 502-530. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781107337930.025


Published abstracts


Winters S& Higham JP. Guenon looking time biases and the evolution of species discrimination. American Journal of Primatology. In press.


Petersdorf M, Georgiev AV, Winters S, Maestripieri D, Dubuc C, Higham JP. Is the red facial coloration of male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) subject to intra-sexual selection? American Journal of Primatology. In press.



Rigaill LR, MacIntosh AJJ, Higham JP, Winters S, Shimizu K, Mouri K, Furuichi T, Garcia C. Female Japanese macaques advertise pregnancy in multiple modalities. Folia Primatologica 86:346. DOI: 10.1159/000435825


Milich KM, Dubuc C, Winters S, Allen WL, Rosenfield KA, Graham S, Higham JP, Maestripieri D. Red-hot males: sexual strategies of high-ranking male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 156(S60):225-226.

DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22718



Winters S, Kamilar JM, Webster TH, Bradley BJ, Higham JP. Primate camouflage as seen by felids, raptors, and conspecifics. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153(S58):275. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22488



Simons N, Winters S, Lorenz J. Comparative analysis of length polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) in Cercopithecidae. American Journal of Primatology 73(S1):83.

DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20978



Other manuscripts



Winters S& Higham JP. Martin Stevens: Sensory Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution. International Journal of Primatology 36:205-208.

DOI: 10.1007/s10764-015-9811-y


Winters S, Dunayer ES, Petersdorf M, Simons ND, Tinsman J. Primatology and conservation in Hanoi, Vietnam. Evolutionary Anthropology 23:201-204.

DOI: 10.1002/evan.21429


Winters S. 2015. Primate colors facilitate conspecific communication while remaining cryptic to predators [Master’s thesis]. New York University: New York.



Higham JP, Amann AL, Bryer MAH, Thompson NA, Winters S. Review of The Evolution of Primate Societies (Eds. John C. Mitani, Josep Call, Peter M. Kappeler, Ryne A. Palombit, and Joan B. Silk). International Journal of Primatology 34:1298-1303. DOI: 10.1007/s10764-013-9731-7



Winters S. 2011. Social recruitment in Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Mt. Huangshan, China [Master’s thesis]. Central Washington University: Ellensburg, WA.